Fair trade is a partnership between producers and customers that is aimed at improving trading conditions. The goal is to help to reduce poverty, sweatshop labor, and substandard working conditions. There are stricter regulations on social and environmental standards, and prices for exportation are higher. Fair-trade agreements pair a producer from a developing country with consumers. The agreements ensure that the consumer receives a quality product, while the producer receives a more stable income. For more information on fair trade products, click here.


Fair-trade products are certified by third party organizations. The two major organizations are Fair Trade USA and the Institute for Marketecology (IMO). To qualify as a fair trade product, the product must meet the environmental and work-quality standards. Fair trade certified comes in a range of levels, with “fair trade certified” for products where at least 25% of the ingredients are fair trade, “fair trade certified ingredients” where 10-24% of the ingredients are fair trade, and specific certifications such as “fair trade certified sugar” when there are between 0-9% fair trade ingredients. For more information on what it means to be fair trade certified, click here.


Fats come in many different forms and are used commonly in cooking. Generally fats are strands of fatty acids. Our body can produce almost all fats, except essential fatty acids such as Omega-3 and Omega-6. The main types of fat are essential fatty acids, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, saturated fats, trans-fats, and cholesterol. For more information on fats, click here.


Fenugreek is a commonly used in Indian, Central Asian, Persian (Iranian) and Middle Eastern cuisines. It is called hilbeh in the Yemenite Jewish community and is also commonly used in Ethiopian foods. It is available fresh in some speciality markets, especially Indian markets, but the dried leaves are available whole or ground online, at any spice shop, and at Middle Eastern stores. The flavor may seem a bit bitter; it is no doubt a distinct but very mild flavor. It is a delicious and essential herb.


Fiber is a part of plants that our bodies cannot digest. Fiber is important for digestion as it gives foods bulk, which makes the food more filling, and helps keep food moving through the digestive system. Fiber is found in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and seeds. It is classified as either soluble or insoluble. Soluble fiber dissolves in water and is found in foods such as oats, oat bran, peas, rice bran, legumes, beans, apples, and citrus fruits. Insoluble fiber absorbs water and is found in foods such as whole wheat flour, wheat bran, rye, cabbage, carrots, Brussels sprouts, and nuts. Daily fiber intakes should be approximately 14g per 1000 calories, but it varies by gender and age.  We designated a dish as high fiber if it has more than 6 grams. For more information on fiber, click here.


These recipes do not contain fin fish or fish products, such as fish oils or powders. Fish products are sometimes hidden in common processed foods. We only include packaged products in our recipes if we have found a fish-free version made in a plant that follows preventative cross contamination processes or does not  produce the allergen, and states that on the package or website.

Do not cook or serve any dishes that contain fish in a highly allergic home or when a highly allergic person is present, no matter how well labeled or out of reach. Discuss how to handle food preparation in advance with any guest who has a serious allergy.

For more information on avoiding fish, click here.


Also called Chinese five-spice powder, this pungent blend of five spices originated in Chinese kitchens, but is also used elsewhere in Asia. The recipe varies from place to place and cook to cook, but one of the most popular combinations is star anise, cinnamon, clove, fennel, and Sichuan pepper. It is traditionally used as a rub for meats, but contemporary cooks use it to add flavor to all kinds of dishes.


A flexitarian (derived from the words “flexible” and “vegetarian”) diet contains more plants and fewer animal products than the standard American diet, but meats and animal products are not eliminated entirely.


Foam cake is a type of cake that uses very little fat and more eggs. The air in the beaten eggs leavens these cakes to make them light and fluffy. Foam cakes are often drier than shortened cakes. This makes foam cakes ideal for soaking in syrups or bending.


Folding is a method for combining two mixtures of differing density. The lighter mixture, usually egg whites or cream, is poured on top of the heavier mixture, and then one scrapes down along the bottom of the bowl, lifting the heavier material up and placing it on top of the lighter material. This technique avoids any excessive force that could alter the mixtures.


The Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network (FAAN) was a non-profit organization dedicated to food allergy awareness, education, research, and advocacy. The FAAN merged with the Food Allergy Initiative (FAI) in 2012 to form FARE (Food Allergy Research & Education).

For more information, visit the FARE website.


The FARE (Food Allergy Research & Education) is a non-profit organization dedicated to ensuring the safety and inclusion of individuals with food allergies while relentlessly seeking a cure.

For more information, visit the FARE website.


The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the government agency responsible for protecting public health by upholding safety standards for food. In addition to regulating food, the FDA makes sure that available drugs are safe for consumption. For more information on the FDA, click here.


Food styling combines art with cooking to prepare food for photographing. Stylists are most often used in magazines, TV shows, and cookbooks — any situation in which food must be displayed in the most appetizing and clean way possible.


Frangipane is an almond pastry cream that is used as a filling or topping for tarts and pastries. It can be made with fresh ground almonds or almond paste.


Freekeh is an ancient Middle Eastern grain that has been rediscovered in recent years. It is green wheat that has been sun-dried, cracked, and roasted.


The French Culinary Institute (FCI) is now known as the International Culinary Center. They have campuses in New York City, California, and Italy. For more information on the FCI, click here.