Saccharin is an artificial sweetener that is much sweeter than regular sugar. It is often diluted with dextrose. Saccharin is calorie free, and is used in sweeteners such as Sweet’N Low. Saccharin can be used as a sugar substitute. Saccharin compounds, such as Sweet’N Low, can be bought from any major supermarkets or online.
Sake is a fermented alcoholic beverage from Japan that is commonly referred to as Japanese rice wine. It typically contains 15 to 17 percent alcohol. As with wine and beer, there are many types. Among the most popular are Honjozo-shu and Junmai-shu.
Salmonella is a bacteria which may cause food poisoning. People are usually infected by eating raw foods or prepared foods that have been handled by others with bacteria on their hands. Most infections can be avoided by:
- Washing your hands frequently while preparing food (especially egg or poultry).
- Cooking meats thoroughly using a meat thermometer.
- Using separate utensils for raw and cooked foods.
SAN MARZANO TOMATOES
San Marzano plum tomatoes are thought to have originated in the region of San Marzano sul Sarno, near Naples, Italy. They are prized for their excellent flavor and many cooks (and eaters) feel they make the best tomato paste and canned tomato products.
SANTA CLAUS MELON
Santa Claus melon, also known as Christmas melon, is an oblong melon with yellow flesh, green-to-yellow rind, and a mild flavor. Some say it got its name because it is available in December, but when it is, you can be sure it has been shipped in from South America. It is in season in North America during the summer.
To sauté (literally, to jump) is to cook food in a pan over high heat with a small amount of fat. The food is kept moving in the pan, and the surface browns as the food cooks.
SCOVILLE HEAT SCALE
The Scoville heat scale measures the spiciness of chili peppers, it is measured in SHU (Scoville Heat Units) or Scovilles. The number of SHU is determined by diluting the pepper’s capsaicin oil (the heat source) with sugar water until it cannot be tasted anymore. The more the oil has to be diluted, the higher the rating and the hotter the pepper. Peppers, such as sweet bells and red chilis, have extremely low ratings, while cayenne and habanero peppers score very high. For more information on the Scoville heat scale, click here.
Semolina flour originated in Italy and is milled from durum hard wheat. It has a high protein and gluten content and is best known for making pasta. Semolina can also be used in breads, as well as a few other baked goods. Semolina flour can be purchased at supermarkets or specialty stores, or it can be ordered online from a variety of vendors.
Sharlyn melon is a hybrid created in the 15th century by crossing cantaloupe, honeydew, and several other kinds of melon. With an oblong shape and light orange skin and flesh, its has a flavor that is somewhere between cantaloupe and honeydew.
Recipes that contain no shellfish or shellfish products. Shellfish may be a hidden ingredient in packaged goods. We only include packaged products in our recipes if we have found a shellfish-free version made in a plant that follows preventative cross contamination processes or does not produce the allergen, and states that on the package or website.
Do not cook or serve any dishes that contain shellfish in a highly allergic home or when a highly allergic person is present, no matter how well labeled or out of reach. Discuss how to handle food preparation in advance with any guest who has a serious allergy.
For more information on avoiding shellfish, click here.
SHREDDED SWEETENED COCONUT
Shredded sweetened coconut is made from dried coconut flakes that have sugar added to them before being dried. Because of the sugar, shredded sweetened coconut is slightly more moist than dried coconut. Shredded sweetened coconut can be purchased at any major supermarkets.
Smoked salt is salt that has been smoked over aromatic wood, typically without bark, such as apple wood, mesquite, hickory or oak. The smoke process imparts a smoky flavor and aroma to the salt, and each wood imparts its own character. Note that smoke-flavored salt is not the same; it gets its smoky quality from a chemical ingredient.
Japanese noodles made from buckwheat flour (a gluten-free flour that is also high in B vitamins and fiber). Some soba noodles, however, contain wheat flour, so if you need a gluten-free alternative, look for labels marked 100 percent buckwheat flour. Soba noodles are available fresh or dried. Nutty in flavor, they are typically served hot, in soup, or cold, with sauce.
Soft wheat has a high percentage of carbohydrates and a low percentage of proteins. The lower protein content means that the wheat is more tender and crumbly, making it better suited for baking pastries, cakes, and pie crusts. For more information on soft wheat, click here.
Sorghum is a gluten-free grain. It is dense, chewy, mildly sweet, and is said to taste like a cross between corn and barley.
SOUR ORANGE JUICE
Sour orange juice, also known as bitter orange juice, is made from several varieties of oranges (such as Seville or Bergamot oranges) that are not naturally sweet. Sour orange juice is used in cocktails, marinades, marmalades and as an ingredient in Mexican cooking. The peel of the Bergamot orange is a key ingredient in Earl Grey tea. If you can’t find fresh sour oranges, bottled sour orange juice is available in the Mexican food or Latin food aisle of the supermarket.
Soy flour is made by grinding roasted soybeans into a powder. It comes in both full-fat and no-fat varieties and can be used as a thickening agent or in baked goods. Soy flour has a high protein content. Soy flour can be bought at some major supermarkets or online. For more information on soy flour, click here.
Recipes that contain no soy or soy products. Soy and its many derivatives are in many processed goods. We only include packaged products in our recipes if we have found a soy-free version made in a plant that follows preventative cross contamination processes or does not produce the allergen, and states that on the package or website.
Do not cook or serve any dishes that contain soy in a highly allergic home or when a highly allergic person is present, no matter how well labeled or out of reach. Discuss how to handle food preparation in advance with any guest who has a serious allergy.
For more information on avoiding soy, click here.
Spelt flour is a common substitution for wheat flours. It is used commonly in pastas, breads, and other baked goods. Spelt originated in Europe and Asia but now can be grown in North America as well. It is not gluten free but is generally more easily digested by people with gluten intolerances than wheat flour. Spelt flour can be bought in many major supermarkets or online from a variety of vendors including Bob’s Red Mill. For more information on spelt flour, click here: http://whatscookingamerica.net/CharlotteBradley/Spelt-Flour.htm
Sriracha is a hot sauce that originated in Southeast Asia. Made from hot chili peppers, vinegar, garlic, sugar, and salt, it is typically used as a condiment, but it’s a versatile ingredient that adds heat and zest to all sorts of dishes.
Stand mixers typically contain a large metal bowl that clips into the mixer, and an attachment that mixes the ingredients in the bowl. It is different from a hand mixer in that the mixer does not need to be supported and can hold a bowl while it mixes.
STEEL CUT OATS (IRISH OR SCOTCH OATS)
Steel cut oats (sometimes called Irish or Scotch oats) are cut instead of rolled. They take the longest to cook and have a slightly chewy consistency.
Stevia is an artificial sweetener derived from the stevia plant. It has no calories and is much sweeter than white sugar. Stevia has a slightly different, more pronounced aftertaste than white sugar. Stevia can be used in most recipes that sugar or other sweeteners are used in.
Stew means to cook slowly in a liquid until completely cooked. A stew is akin to soup, and contains either meat or vegetables in a thick broth that contains stewing liquid and the natural juices of the food.
A stock is a strained liquid base made by simmering meats, fish, herbs, vegetables, and bones in water for several hours. The ingredients are usually browned first, before being cooked in the liquid. A stock is not meant to be eaten alone, but is a base used to make soups and sauces.
Sucralose is a calorie-free artificial sweetener. Found in variety of foods, sucralose is most commonly sold by Splenda and is available at most major supermarkets or online. For more information on sucralose, click here.
Sumac is a plant with red berries that have a distinctively tart flavor. Sumac is favored in Greek, Turkish, Middle Eastern, Persian and North African cuisines. It is available as a crushed, dried spice, sometimes labeled as somagh.
Sunchoke, aka Jerusalem artichoke, is the small knobby tuber of a variety of sunflower; it is neither an artichoke nor from Jerusalem. It can be eaten raw or cooked.